Misc RE Tips12 Aug 2017
Influenced by Gynvael's CONFidence CTF 2017 Livestreams here and here; and by his Google CTF Quals 2017 Livestream here
Reverse engineering is a mix of an art as well as a science. Over time, one tends to gather a repertoire of common "tips and tricks" that one might use when reversing any given piece of software. What follows are a condensed form of some tricks gained from Gynvael's livestreams.
Sometimes, a challenge might implement a complicated task by implementing a VM. It is not always necessary to completely reverse engineer the VM and work on solving the challenge. Sometimes, you can RE a little bit, and once you know what is going on, you can hook into the VM, and get access to stuff that you need. Additionally, timing based side-channel attacks become easier in VMs (mainly due to more number of "real" instructions executed).
Cryptographically interesting functions in binaries can be recognized and quickly RE'd simply by looking for the constants and searching for them online. For standard crypto functions, these constants are sufficient to quickly guess at a function. Simpler crypto functions can be recognized even more easily. If you see a lot of XORs and stuff like that happening, and no easily identifiable constants, it is probably hand-rolled crypto (and also possibly broken).
Sometimes, when using IDA with HexRays, the disassembly view might be better than the decompilation view. This is especially true if you notice that there seems to be a lot of complication going on in the decompilation view, but you notice repetitive patterns in the disassembly view. (You can quickly switch b/w the two using the space bar). For example, if there is a (fixed size) big-integer library implemented, then the decompilation view is terrible, but the disassembly view is easy to understand stuff (and easily recognizable due to the repetitive "with-carry" instructions such as
adc). Additionally, when analyzing like this, using the "Group Nodes" feature in IDA's graph view is extremely useful to quickly reduce the complexity of your graph, as you understand what each node does.
For weird architectures, having a good emulator is extremely useful. Especially, an emulator that can give you a dump of the memory can be used to quickly figure out what is going on, and recognize interesting portions, once you have the memory out of the emulator. Additionally, using an emulator implemented in a comfortable language (such as Python), means that you could run things exactly how you like. For example, if there is some interesting part of the code you might wish to run multiple times (for example, to brute force or something), then using the emulator, you can quickly code up something that does only that part of the code, rather than having to run the complete program.
Being lazy is good, when REing. Do NOT waste time reverse engineering everything, but spend enough time doing recon (even in an RE challenge!), so as to be able to reduce the time spent on actually doing the more difficult task of REing. What recon, in such a situation means, is to just take quick looks at different functions, without spending too much time on analyzing each function thoroughly. You just quickly gauge what the function might be about (for example "looks like a crypto thing", or "looks like a memory management thing", etc.)
For unknown hardware or architecture, spend enough time looking it up on Google, you might get lucky with a bunch of useful tools or documents that might help you build tools quicker. Often times, you'll find toy emulator etc implementations that might be useful as a quick point to start off from. Alternatively, you might get some interesting info (such as how bitmaps are stored, or how strings are stored, or something) with which you can write a quick "fix" script, and then use normal tools to see if interesting stuff is there.
Gimp (the image manipulation tool), has a very cool open/load functionality to see raw pixel data. You can use this to quickly look for assets or repetitive structures in raw binary data. Do spend time messing around with the settings to see if more info can be gleaned from it.