Genetic Fuzzing27 May 2017
Written on May 27 2017; extended on May 29 2017. Influenced by this amazing live stream by Gynvael Coldwind, where he talks about the basic theory behind genetic fuzzing, and starts to build a basic genetic fuzzer. He then proceeds to complete the implementation in this live stream.
Here, we take a look at "advanced" fuzzing (in comparison to a blind fuzzer, as described in my "Basics of Fuzzing" note). While it also modifies/mutates bytes etc, but it does so in a slightly smarter way than the blind "dumb" fuzzer.
Why do we need a genetic fuzzer?
Some programs might be "nasty" towards dumb fuzzers, since it is
possible that a vulnerability might require a whole bunch of
conditions to be satisfied to be reached. In a dumb fuzzer, we have
very low probability of this happening since it doesn't have any idea
if it is making any progress or not. As a specific example, if we have
if a: if b: if c: if d: crash! (let's call it the CRASHER
code), then in this case we need 4 conditions to be satisfied to crash
the program. However, a dumb fuzzer might be unable to get past the
a condition, just because there is very low chance that all 4
d, happen at same time. In fact, even if it
progresses by doing just
a, the next mutation might go back to
just because it doesn't know anything about the program.
Wait, when does this kind of "bad case" program show up?
It is quite common in file format parsers, to take one example. To reach some specific code paths, one might need to go past multiple checks "this value must be this, and that value must be that, and some other value must be something of something else" and so on. Additionally, almost no real world software is "uncomplicated", and most software has many many many possible code paths, some of which can be accessed only after many things in the state get set up correctly. Thereby, many of these programs' code paths are basically inaccessible to dumb fuzzers. Additionally, sometimes, some paths might be completely inaccessible (rather than just crazily improbable) due to not enough mutations done whatsoever. If any of these paths have bugs, a dumb fuzzer would never be able to find them.
So how do we do better than dumb fuzzers?
Consider the Control Flow Graph (CFG) of the above mentioned CRASHER
code. If by chance a dumb fuzzer suddenly got
a correct, then too it
would not recognize that it reached a new node, but it would continue
ignoring this, discarding the sample. On the other hand, what AFL (and
other genetic or "smart" fuzzers) do, is they recognize this as a new
piece of information ("a newly reached path") and store this sample as
a new initial point into the corpus. What this means is that now the
fuzzer can start from the
a block and move further. Of course,
sometimes, it might go back to the
!a from the
a sample, but most
of the time, it will not, and instead might be able to reach
block. This again is a new node reached, so adds a new sample into the
corpus. This continues, allowing more and more possible paths to be
checked, and finally reaches the
Why does this work?
By adding mutated samples into the corpus, that explore the graph more (i.e. reach parts not explored before), we can reach previously unreachable areas, and can thus fuzz such areas. Since we can fuzz such areas, we might be able to uncover bugs in those regions.
Why is it called genetic fuzzing?
This kind of "smart" fuzzing is kind of like genetic algorithms. Mutation and crossover of specimens causes new specimens. We keep specimens which are better suited to the conditions which are tested. In this case, the condition is "how many nodes in the graph did it reach?". The ones that traverse more can be kept. This is not exactly like genetic algos, but is a variation (since we keep all specimens that traverse unexplored territory, and we don't do crossover) but is sufficiently similar to get the same name. Basically, choice from pre-existing population, followed by mutation, followed by fitness testing (whether it saw new areas), and repeat.
Wait, so we just keep track of unreached nodes?
Nope, not really. AFL keeps track of edge traversals in the graph, rather than nodes. Additionally, it doesn't just say "edge travelled or not", it keeps track of how many times an edge was traversed. If an edge is traversed 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, ... times, it is considered as a "new path" and leads to addition into the corpus. This is done because looking at edges rather than nodes is a better way to distinguish between application states, and using an exponentially increasing count of the edge traversals gives more info (an edge traversed once is quite different from traversed twice, but traversed 10 is not too different from 11 times).
So, what and all do you need in a genetic fuzzer?
We need 2 things, the first part is called the tracer (or tracing instrumentation). It basically tells you which instructions were executed in the application. AFL does this in a simple way by jumping in between the compilation stages. After the generation of the assembly, but before assembling the program, it looks for basic blocks (by looking for endings, by checking for jump/branch type of instructions), and adds code to each block that marks the block/edge as executed (probably into some shadow memory or something). If we don't have source code, we can use other techniques for tracing (such as pin, debugger, etc). Turns out, even ASAN can give coverage information (see docs for this).
For the second part, we then use the coverage information given by the tracer to keep track of new paths as they appear, and add those generated samples into the corpus for random selection in the future.
There are multiple mechanisms to make the tracer. They can be software based, or hardware based. For hardware based, there are, for example, some Intel CPU features exist where given a buffer in memory, it records information of all basic blocks traversed into that buffer. It is a kernel feature, so the kernel has to support it and provide it as an API (which Linux does). For software based, we can do it by adding in code, or using a debugger (using temporary breakpoints, or through single stepping), or use address sanitizer's tracing abilities, or use hooks, or emulators, or a whole bunch of other ways.
Another way to differentiate the mechanisms is by either black-box tracing (where you can only use the unmodified binary), or software white-box tracing (where you have access to the source code, and modify the code itself to add in tracing code).
AFL uses software instrumentation during compilation as the method for tracing (or through QEMU emulation). Honggfuzz supports both software and hardware based tracing methods. Other smart fuzzers might be different. The one that Gyn builds uses the tracing/coverage provided by address sanitizer (ASAN).
Some fuzzers use "speedhacks" (i.e. increase fuzzing speed) such as by making a forkserver or other such ideas. Might be worth looking into these at some point :)